Anesthesia is derived from a Greek word, which means loss of consciousness or sensation from the body or part, which is anesthetized. A person who is given anesthesia is called anesthetized. Anesthesia is given to patients during medical or surgical procedures. As if a person is treated surgically without pain control or the use of anesthesia, he or she will suffer from immense pain. Anesthesia in medical terminology refers to the meticulous and temporary loss of body sensation or pain. The three types of anesthesia are General anesthesia, local anesthesia, and drowsiness, also known as sedation.
What is Anesthesia?
We all know that science has reached higher levels, and things are looking up for the medical department because we go for ultrasounds and x-ray when we feel discomfort.
We must be thankful that we have an anesthesia protocol that can eliminate the pain we might experience during a surgical procedure.
In easy words, anesthesia is given to a person to eliminate pain or discomfort during a medical or surgical procedure. Anesthesia helps to eliminate the trauma of pain. Many experts state that anesthesia consists of three essential components.
- Pain decline is also known as analgesia in medical terms.
- Temporary loss of consciousness also called amnesia
- And lastly relaxation of the bodily muscles or muscle smoothness
Though we use anesthesia during medical procedures to eliminate the pain, it is also used for noninvasive methods. For example, a child who fails to cooperate in undergoing a brain x-ray or a person who is restricting all sorts of procedures can be given anesthesia.
Different Types of Anesthesia
You must know four basic types of anesthesia because if your loved one undergoes any of these, you must have a little knowledge about it.
In general, anesthesia, the patient is made unconscious or undergoes complete sleep, and the doctors control the patient's breathing. Painful surgical procedures such as heart surgery require general anesthesia.
When it comes to sedation, the patient is given mild to moderate anesthesia levels, which means that the patient controls their breathing themselves.
In general, anesthesia, the patient remains awake, and the area where the injection is given becomes emotionless or numb. But the patient is under complete consciousness.
This injection is given to a greater body area to numb the pain and sensation, but the patient remains fully awake such as during child labor.
How Does Anesthesia Work?
Different types of medication are either given individually or in combination with another while giving anesthesia. Not to forget that a person who provides anesthesia is known as an anesthesiologist, and he takes care of the patient undergoing anesthesia before and after. The most common drug that is used for giving general anesthesia is propofol. However, studies have shown that anesthesia's effectiveness or temporary loss of pain and sensation cannot be achieved with propofol. Only instead, a combination of drugs must be used.
An anesthesiologist gives anesthesia by placing an intravenous line or IV line inside the patient's vein. In the meantime, the patient is given the oxygen mask for easy breathing. Within few minutes, you will be noticed your patient becoming unconscious for some time and not responding to pain or anything.
Well, once the patient has fallen asleep, a windpipe is inserted into the patient's mouth to make the muscles of the mouth and throat easy and relaxed. The nurse must notify the patient's breathing, pulse, sugar level, or blood pressure.
The doctors will continue to induce anesthetic medicines such as propofol and stop injecting anesthesia once the surgical process is over. The anesthesia doctors will continue to monitor the patient even in the recovery room. Sooner or later patient will gain consciousness, and the nurse and medical staff will make sure that the patient is not feeling any pain or side effect of anesthesia.
Stages of General Anesthesia
To keep the patients secure following stages are to be followed.
Stage One Is Induction
The first process begins when the doctor has given you the anesthesia till the time the patient starts losing his or her consciousness. The patients' breathing becomes mild but regular, and initially, the patient is awake but slowly starts losing consciousness.
Stage Two Involves Excitement
This is also referred to as the dangerous stage as, during this phase, the heartbeat of the patient might increase, and they may vomit or choke, which can alter the breathing system
This is when the doctors start operating the surgical procedure since all the patient's body muscles undergo complete relaxation or rest. And the patients' eyes stop moving here and there.
Sometimes the anesthesiologist overdose the patient or gives them a little too much. This is when your lungs and heart might stop working.
When Do You Get Anesthesia?
The following conditions opt for anesthesia as if the treatment process is long, and your breathing is not stable, there is a major surgery of your heart, or chances of losing blood.
The possibilities when you do not require anesthesia are when the surgical procedure is slight, or it involves surgery of a small part of your body. Therefore, these are the facts that tell when and when not to apply anesthesia.
Side Effects Or Risks of Anesthesia
Once the anesthesia is getting mild, you might feel drowsiness, but other side effects you may encounter as a patient are
- Nausea and vomiting
- Unable to speak or concentrate
- Losing focus or loss of memory
- Pain in body muscles or weakness
- Itching or allergy to the medicine causing allergic reaction
With general anesthesia, it is expected that people often get confused about their situation, but this phase eventually fades after a solid one week. And the patient is otherwise checked regularly to see whether any trouble is encountered or not. This is the staff's duty to periodically check patients' blood sugar, pressure, and oxygen levels.
General anesthesia complications are common, but healthy patients with a robust immune system might not develop any side effects. But fat patients have heart disease or any other medical condition that might develop. There are also significantly fewer chances that the patient might wake up in the middle of surgery. This is rare, but if it happens, it can traumatize the patient's mind, and it might take some time to overcome it.
Some awareness regarding anesthesia must be created among people so that their fear may take a seat back. When anesthesia is cultured and given properly with appropriate medicines, no harmful side effects can be seen.