There are different types of cancer. Cancer is an unprogrammed and uncontrolled division of body cells. It results in the production of tumors. Cancer may be localized or delocalized. For example, some cancers are localized and are termed benign. They do not spread to the other parts of the body. Another type of cancer is malignant or delocalized cancer. It spreads into more parts of the body. This is the worst type of cancer. It may spread in the whole body and can lead to death. Cancer treatment is not available for all types of disease. Only a few types of cancer are curable. Its treatment is costly, and fewer people survive. Let’s discuss the different stages and complications of cancer.

What Is Cancer?

Cancer is an uncontrolled and unplanned division of the cells anywhere in the body that leads to the formation of tumors. They are abnormal cells that divide faster as compared to normal cells. We call them cancer, tumor, or malignant cells. They may get the name according to the area of the body, for example, lung cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. This disease is not limited to humans; it can also affect animals, birds, and other living organisms. Cancer cells may go to other areas from their area of origin. This type of movement is called metastasis, in which abnormal cells move to another area and start dividing. For example, breast cancer can spread to bones, and we will call it metastatic breast cancer. This is a highly painful disease that affects different individuals. Men, women, and children are equally susceptible to this disorder.

Risk Factors And Causes

Anything that can make a normal body cell behave abnormally and grow faster can become the cause of cancer. Many types of cancer have unknown causes, whereas some types may occur due to environmental or lifestyle factors. They may trigger the development of cancer cells. The genetic makeup of an individual may also become the reason for the abnormal development of cells. It is difficult to detect or pinpoint the initiation factor of cancer. It may originate from any source. According to research, there are many causes of cancer. They may alone or collectively become the cause of cancer. Exposure to toxic chemicals can lead to the development of cancer. These chemicals include benzene, nickel, asbestos, vinyl chloride, cadmium, benzidine, and cigarette smoke. Other causes may be ionizing radiation such as uranium, radon, UV rays from sunlight, and radiation from alpha, beta, gamma, and x-ray emitting sources. Some pathogens can also cause this disease. They include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis viruses, and others. Many types of cancer are linked with the genetic makeup of people. Breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate cancers occur due to genetic makeup.

Symptoms And Signs

The symptoms of cancer depend upon the type of cancer and its area of origin. For example, breast cancer will have different symptoms, and prostate cancer will show different signs. Breast cancer may become prominent in the form of a lump in the breast or nipple discharge. On the contrary, metastatic cancer may present itself with painful symptoms. Some common symptoms include unexplained weight loss, loss of appetite, persistent nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. New pain in bones, joints, or other parts of the body that is slowly becoming worsened may also be a sign of cancer. Unexplained and low-grade fevers and recurring infections that do not heal by usual treatments are also likely to occur due to cancer. Whenever you feel any symptom of this kind, you must immediately consult your doctor. You should discuss your symptoms for knowing why it is happening so.

Types Of Cancer

There is more than 200 type of cancer. They are too many types that we cannot explain in this small article. However, we can summarize few types here. Carcinoma starts with the skin or in tissues that line the internal organs. It may include skin, colon, pancreatic, ovarian, and other cancers. Sarcoma is another type of cancer that affects bones. It starts in bones, muscles, joints, blood vessels, and cartilage. It may be osteosarcoma, liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, angiosarcoma, and others. Leukemia is a cancer type that initiates in the blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow. It is the cause of the production of an increased number of abnormal blood cells. Lymphoma and myeloma are cancers that affect the cells of the immune system. Similarly, central nervous system cancers start in the tissues of the brain and spinal cord.

Diagnosis Of Cancer

Some cancers are examined during regular screening tests. Many types of cancers are diagnosed when you present your symptoms before your doctor. Doctors conduct a physical exam and ask about general symptoms. They may use these details for diagnosing the disease. Most medical professionals may ask for specific tests to understand the reasons for symptoms. The nature and number of tests depend upon the type of cancer and the area of the body where it has originated. Most doctors will ask you to bring reports of CBC (complete blood count), electrolyte levels, and other blood tests. They can give additional information about the disease. Some physicians use imaging studies to check the abnormalities. Imaging studies include MRI, X-ray, CT scans, and ultrasound. Another test is endoscopy. These are different tools that can help to diagnose different types of cancer.

Stages Of Cancer

There are different stages of cancer. Numerically, they may be categorized from stages 1-4. Following are four stages of cancer.

Stage-1

This is the initial stage of cancer. It demonstrates that cancer has just started, and it is still present in the area where it started. This is curable and less dangerous.

Stage-2

This stage demonstrates that tumors are larger as compared to stage-1, but cancer has not started spreading in the other areas yet. Sometimes, this stage tells that disease has spread to lymph nodes near the tumors.

Stage-3

This stage refers that cancer has become larger, and it has started spreading in the other and surrounding tissues of the body. It also demonstrates that there are some abnormal cells in the lymph nodes.

Stage-4

This stage shows that cancer has spread to other parts of the body. It means that it has shifted to other parts of the body.

Sometimes doctors use letters A, B, C, and D for different levels or stages of cancer. These are different stages of cancer. Cancer can lead to death. There are innumerable types of cancer. They have different symptoms depending upon their area of origin. Cancer treatment has not yet enough to treat different types of cancer. Many cancers are non-curable.

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